I.A . Richard as A New Critic B.A. Patr 3 Notes English literature

 I.A . Richard as A New Critic B.A. Part –  3 Notes English literature 

I.A Richards as a new critic 

I.A. Richards is one of the most important among 20th century English critics and it is proper that he is regarded as the founder of Anglo American school of new criticism . All the new critics whether it is Jon crow Ronsom ,  RP blackmure ,or Cleanth  Brooks   beside F. R.  lewis and William Empson are indebted  in varying degrees is that the study of text and on which new criticism is based was started by no another then recharged himself is remembered for the five important books who wrote either independently or in collaboration with others . First book the foundation of Aesthetics came out in in 1922 . It has been written in collaboration with two of his Cambridge friends Ogden and James wood . In this book Richards tried to give his own analysis of the concept of aesthetic beauty . His second book entitled the meaning of meaning was published in 1923. Richards wrote this book too in collaboration with Odgen .  in Hindi in this book Richards  try to to bring out distinction between the symbolic use of language in poetry or literature. His third book principle of literary criticism is the most outstanding of all critic critical exercises. This book came out in 1924 and created almost revaluation in the field of English literary criticism. Richards practical criticism came out in 1929 and this book not only contains the analysis of text and that were  done in the classroom at Cambridge but also certain  valuable critical inferences  and conclusion . three main of objectives writing this book to document  the temporary states of culture to create a new kind of reading habit and to Reform the teaching of literature . Richards fifth entitled  on great romantic poet’s view on fancy and imagination. 

                   Richards most important books is the principle of literary criticism in which he takes up  the issue of poetic process the value of poetry in society and the theory of communication in respect of poetry.  by poetry Richards mean all  imaginative literature and maintains that poetry is the impression of an  uniquely ordered state of mind .  In this connection he analyses the state of mind.  Which is required for poetic creation. He says  that our mind has two kinds of impulses  the appetencies  and oversions . Which exercise stimulus the maximum frustration of the Oversions .  Our mind archives  an organised and harmonious state which is reflected through poetry.  Thus  Richards supports the view of Arnold by saving that poetry is the happiest and best expressions of the happiest and best minds according to him a society which contains the maximum number of artist of poets is considered to be the more organised or cultured society.

                 After discussing the poetic process of human mind Richards came to the problems of communication in relation to poetry .In Richards view communication is inseparable from poetic experience.  He gives reply to Thomas love peacock when he says that science make only statement for the satisfaction for  outer organism where as poetry gives statements for the  the satisfaction of both outer and inner organism. Thomas love peacock in his book The four ages of poetry comments that while science clears out the illusions from human mind poetry again takes into the primitive condition of vagueness.  Richards claims that poetry marks use of the scientific and emotive language for the effective communication in the in poetry . The value of poetry lies in its effective communication because a poet has to the evoke the same organised a state of mind in readers through his poetry.  An impossible Idea becomes plausible in poetry by the interplay of scientific and emotive use of language. 

                     I. A Richards supposed to be an iconoclast  because he dismisses all previous theories of Criticism at something inadequate and absurd  . More over he is also known as a psychological critic because his theories of poetic creation and its value are based upon psychology. Despite his great distribution to the field of Criticism he has been criticized severely for certain shortcomings in his critical theories . His criticism is  amateurish in nature because he borrows heavily from other branches of Science and Arts . I. A Richards does not combines his borrowings into an organic whole.  it is said that his literary theories are bound to change if the psychological theories lose their significance . Nevertheless  I . A Richards the theory of poetry and its value brings poetry and literature close to scientific  process. 

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